Draw Reins Draw reins run from the saddle billets where the girth attaches, through the ring of the bit and to the rider’s hand. This applies downward pressure to the bit when the rider applies a rein aid. The majority … Continue reading
It is said there is a key to every horse’s mouth; meaning there is a bit out there that fits the horse perfectly. That being said, two different riders may require two different bits to get the most out of the same horse. One rider may get the most out of a horse with a simple snaffle, while another rider may not feel he gets the most communication out of it, and another bit is required.
When choosing a bit, look at what the people around you are using. If one player seems to have seamless communication with his horse and his horse is going well, relaxed, and there is little fight between the two, ask him what bit he is using and why. If at all possible, ride a high goal horse: one that has been impeccably trained.
If at all possible, it is recommended that each horse have their own bridle and their own bit, so that you know without a doubt the fit is correct. Bits are relatively inexpensive and will last your entire polo career, and so they are a smart investment. For the more rare bits, ask around to see if a fellow polo player or even local hunters or eventers will let you try out a more unusual bit.
Many horses will evade the bit, either by lifting their heads, slipping their tongues over the bit, grabbing the bit, or tucking his nose to his chest. Polo consists of hard stops and turns. If the bit is severe or the hand too harsh, the horse will find a way to evade the pressure of the bit. A good number of polo ponies throw their heads up, tighten down their backs and let their hind ends drag out. This is a very easy evasion of the bit. While this form of evasion is common place on the polo field, it is detrimental to the horse’s well-being. A horse that stops with his head in the air for an extended period of time will start showing symptoms of a sore back.
The horse that tucks his nose to his chest is evading the bit the same way as the horse that throws his head up. This, while it is preferred to throwing the head up, still causes damage to the back and if not corrected, will result in permanent damage.
There are three major types of bits on the polo field: 1. Simple gag, 2. Double gag and 3. Curb bits. All bits that have movable parts next to the horse’s lips should have a bit guard or bit doughnut put on, to prevent the horse’s lip getting pinched during play. The majority are made out of stainless steel, but bits can be found in copper, sweet iron (cold rolled steel) or a combination of metals. The idea behind these metals is that they encourage salivation in the horse’s mouth, creating a lubricated and more communicative surface. Bits can also be found in plastic or rubber, which do not rust and are thought to be more gentle than metal bits. Whether a gag or a curb, the longer the curb or the bigger the ring on the gag, the more pressure it will inflict on the horse’s poll. Every bit, in the wrong hands can be painful to the horse, but even the most severe bit, in the right hands, can be a delicate tool.
The most widely used bit across any discipline is the snaffle. It is the least interfering, the least complicated, and the most readily accepted by the green horse. A snaffle bit describes any bit that uses direct pressure and not leverage pressure on the horse’s mouth. Every bit consists of a mouthpiece and a cheek piece. A snaffle can either have a jointed mouthpiece or a straight bar. The snaffle affects several parts of the horse’s mouth: the tongue, bars and lips. Snaffles are preferred for training and exercise where communication is less demanding.
Most disciplines that rely heavily on snaffles do not use a curb. A curb is either a chain or a strap of leather that runs from the cheek pieces underneath the horse’s chin. Curbs on leverage bits add pressure to the horse’s chin, a curb on a snaffle bit can be used to keep the bit from sliding out one side of the horse’s mouth.
The simple gag is just that. It consists of a single bar, jointed in the middle to allow it to follow the curvature of the horse’s tongue. There is generally a fabric or leather piece that runs from the horse’s cheek piece through the middle of the ring of the bit and out the bottom to connect to the second rein. This gag portion acts as a lever, and when pressure is applied, it cantilevers against the horse’s mouth and applies pressure to the poll, just behind the ears. This encourages the horse to lower his head as he slows down. A thin mouth piece is more severe than a thick one. You can also buy twisted simple gags, in which the metal mouth piece looks like it’s been twisted into a corkscrew. This increases the texture over the horse’s tongue and is less severe than a double gag, but more severe than a snaffle. There are also a difference in severity between a fast twist and a slow twist.
Double Gag/Barry Gag
In a double gag, or Barry gag, there are two metal pieces over the horse’s mouth, articulated at opposing places. These joints bend the bit around the horse’s tongue and also will hit the roof of the horse’s mouth, adding extra strength to the rein aids. Just as in the simple gag, a double gag bit can have a twist in it as well.
A Curb Bit
Curb bits have a shank, or a secondary piece coming off the mouthpiece that the bottom rein attaches to, creating leverage. Leverage bits not only apply pressure directly to the mouth but also use a fulcrum action to apply pressure behind the ears. The pressure applied to the shank piece of the bit applies added pressure behind the horse’s ears. The top rein that attaches directly to the snaffle should be marginally shorter than the bottom, shank rein. The mouthpiece should engage the horse first, with the leverage of the shank reinforcing the snaffle. The length of the shank determines the severity of the leverage applied to the back of the horse’s poll and chin; the longer the shank, the more pressure.
Curb bits may also have a curb, or metal chain or leather strap that goes underneath the horse’s chin, also creating leverage against the horse’s chin, encouraging more stop. A chain is obviously more intense than leather, but if your horse has delicate skin under the chin, a leather strap is a welcome alternative. When fitting a bit with a curb chain, you should be able to slide to fingers width-wise between the horse’s jaw and the chain. Another way to judge the effectiveness is to gently pull back on the shank-piece. The chain should engage when the shanks are at 45 degrees.
For training purposes, a curb bit can be used with a single rein, either attached to the mouthpiece alone, or to the shanks alone. Obviously, a bit with the rein attached to the mouthpiece will only engage the mouthpiece; a rein attached to the shank will only engage the shank.
What types of bits do you prefer for polo? Do you collect bits like I do? I swear, it’s an addiction.
20 Must-Haves For Your Equine First Aid Kit
Polo is a rough and tumble sport and injuries are bound to happen. A first aid kit is a necessity on any farm and is often something you should have handy before you need it. Build a kit for both the barn, and the trailer, so you’ll always have what you need, when you need it. The list I’ve compiled below I made with caring for the horses in mind, but many of these can be used for humans as well.
Elastikon, vet wrap, standing wraps, shipping wraps, even a polo wrap can be used in a pinch. You’ll want to have something flexible available in case you need to wrap an open wound or poultice.
Scissors are vitally important for cutting duct-tape, elastikon, or electrical tape. Should you find yourself needing to put a wrap on your horse in a hurry, having scissors to be able to cut the elastikon or duct-tape will make things easier.
Everything from dousing a hot horse with water or letting them drink a bit of water, to soaking hooves or even using as a first aid kit container, buckets are essential.
Horses always seem to injure themselves at the worst time, and night is no exception. Keep a flashlight with charged batteries available for inspecting wounds in the dark.
Tweezers can be used to pick off ticks, remove shards of wood, or just get into tight places your fingers can’t fit.
6. Ice Packs
Help to cool down a hot horse or apply immediate cold to swollen limbs.
Keep a jar of vaseline in your first aid kit for assisting thermometers getting to where they need to go or use it for sunscreen on horses with white noses or on burns/fresh skin to protect and encourage hair to grow back.
8. Rubbing Alcohol
For disinfecting scissors, tweezers, or thermometers. Do not use to disinfect wounds as it can dry out the skin you want to heal.
9. Sheet or Roll Cotton
On scrapes and cuts on the leg, you’ll disinfect it, cover it with non-stick gauze, and then wrap what you can with a roll of sheet cotton. This provides some cushioning, protects the area from getting dirty, and holds the gauze in place.
Betadyne is a beautifully gentle disinfectant. Always disinfect more than you think you need to.
11. Sterile Gauze
Sterile, non-stick gauze will hold any antibiotic ointment, or simply to cover an open wound and protect it from getting dirty. I prefer using the non-stick version so I don’t tear off new skin when I replace the bandage.
12. Surgical Gloves
Always a good idea to wear surgical gloves when dealing with blood or treating a wound to prevent infection.
A rectal thermometer is essential for taking a horse’s temperature.
14. Wire cutters
Wire cutters can be handy if your horse gets caught up in wire fencing, or even hooks and bucket handles.
15. Bottled Sterile water
Bottled sterile water is good to have on hand for flushing debris out of eyes, or open wounds.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, Phenylbutazone can be used like aspirin. It can bought in an oral paste, or an injectionable solution. Use it to provide pain relief, and reduce fevers.
Usually a twitch is a long wooden pole with a loop of rope at the end. This loop is slipped over the horse’s nose as the pole is twisted until the rope tightens down around the soft upper lip. While this may seem cruel, it is certainly effective for situations in which you need to immobilize the horse for it’s own and your safety.
A poultice is a thick solution that is applied to swelling in an attempt to draw out the inflammation.
Acepromazine is a strong tranquilizer and should only be used at the discretion or at the direction of a vet.
Another non-steriodal anti-inflammatory, flunixin is more agressive at targeting inflamed tissue and is usually used in the treatment of colic pain, join disease and to alleviate fevers. A side effect of administering flunixin is usually diarrhea, which also helps in some cases of colic.
Did I miss anything? What do you have in your first aid kit? A bottle of tequila?
A couple days ago one of my horses came up suddenly lame. I hadn’t worked her especially hard recently so I wasn’t concerned about bowed tendons and upon inspection only found minimal heat around her fetlock and the top of her coronary band. I picked her hoof to see if I could find anything obvious, but again came up with nothing. It wasn’t until I took the hoof testers to her that I found a localized pain in her hoof. This is a very typical presentation of an abscess so I wanted to take this opportunity write up a description of what an abscess actually is and how to treat it.
What is an abscess??
-In any part of the body, an abscess is a localized infection. Whatever the cause of the abscess, it usually results in death of tissue within the hoof. Because blood flow is restricted in the hoof, the body has no way to remove this dead tissue, causing an infection. In a hoof, which is a relatively non-porous material, it builds pressure, causing pain, until it can find an escape.
What causes abscesses??
-Any damage to the hoof can cause an abscess. A puncture by a nail or sharp stone, a shoe nail that quicks the horse, or even a simple bruise can cause enough damage to create an abscess. This happens a lot when a horse goes from being shod to barefoot so, in the fall, when we turn out horses out make sure to keep an eye on them for a least the last couple weeks to make sure they handle the transition well.
If you suspect your horse stepped on a nail, call your vet immediately. Radiographs will have to be taken to make sure the nail did not reach the coffin bone, or the bursa around it.
How do I treat an abscess??
1. To release the pressure and make your horse more comfortable, a farrier or vet may dig out a hole in the bottom of the hoof, allowing the infection to drain. If this does not happen it will find the path of least resistance and you risk the abscess making its way upwards and bursting out of the coronary band. This is a much nastier wound and much harder to keep clean and heal correctly. If a hole cannot be made, they may recommend a series of soaking the hoof in a mixture of hot water and Epsom salts to soften the bottom of the hoof. If your horse does not stand too well with his hoof in a bucket or feet bin, a hoof boot may make this easier on both of you.
2. After a hole has been opened, your vet may recommend soaking the hoof in a mixture of Epsom salts and water. Others have recommended even a mixture of water and chamomile tea, or water and apple cider vinegar.
3. It should be cleaned thoroughly with a mild disinfectant like betadine. Then a drawing agent such as ichthammol or an Epsom salt paste can be applied, covered by sterile gauze pads. Wrap the foot with vet wrap, covered by elasticon or duct tape. Be careful not to cover the coronary band as this can restrict blood flow and cause more damage.
Allow your horse turn out. The sole and frog of the hoof act as a cushion and the regular pressure of walking will help circulate fluid in the hoof.
If the infection is large enough, your vet may recommend daily injections of antibiotics. This will simply help the horse’s body fight the infection.
If the abscessed was caused by a shoe nail, removal of the shoe may be enough to release the pressure.
While painful to the horse, abscesses are usually the best diagnosis your vet can give you. Depending on the severity, your horse may only be off for a couple of days to a week. If you have any great abscess stories or remedies or any questions, please feel free to comment below!
Bridle Fitting When fitting your bridle to your horse, always make sure you can slide your hand vertically through the throatlatch, and that there is plenty of room for your horse to arch his neck, breathe, etc. This strap is … Continue reading
Polo in the 20th Century As polo gained in popularity, the fields were better maintained and sideboards were introduced in an attempt to keep the ball in play and encourage the fluidity of the game. Saddles were specifically designed for … Continue reading
Polo in the 19th Century Polo’s major leap in history began in 1859, when English Army Lieutenant, Joseph Sherer played his first “pulu” game in Manipur. He established the first European Polo Club in India later that same year. This fast, … Continue reading
While the exact date of the first polo match is unknown, in ancient Persia around 600BC it was called chaugán, which refers to the polo mallet. It was played with hundreds of players to a side and was designed to … Continue reading
The Ancient Origins of the Horse The modern horse began as Eohippus, an omnivore not much better than a fox. It had a springy, rounded back shaped more like a rabbit’s than modern horse’s and all of the major bones … Continue reading
The other week one of my mares came in with a cut just below her knee. She had just gotten a new pasture-mate, so I assumed there would be some bumps and bruises from them establishing a pecking order. We kept it clean, gave her some SMZs because it was starting to look infected, but at the end of a month it was no longer a cut, but proud flesh.
Proud flesh is where the body grows too much granulation tissue, the tissue the body uses to ‘fill in’ the wound, protect the underlying structures from infection. This tissue does not have many nerves, but has a very active blood supply, and will bleed profusely.
Proud flesh usually occurs below the knee or the hock. These areas have an increased amount of tension on the skin, making it more difficult for the skin to grow back, and making it much easier for proud flesh to develop.
- Depending on the severity of the proud flesh, a veterinarian may be able to surgically remove the proud flesh and a pressure bandage applied to stop the proud flesh bleeding, and encourage the skin to grow. This procedure may have to be done a number of times.
- Several caustic substances are available through your vet or local vet supply store. The caution with caustic substances is they’re designed to destroy cells, and you risk destroying healthy cells as well.
- Honey and bandage. I have had tremendous luck simply applying honey to the location, protecting it with a non-stick gauze (bought at CVS) and wrapped cotton and vet-wrap. Honey is a natural anti-bacterial and promotes healing.
Depending on the size and the underlying structures involved, you may just be looking at a small scar or white hair patch. I definitely recommend consulting with your vet first and foremost, before deciding on any treatment.